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While the UK was under attack from the IRA and others, it was realised that reactive policing did not provide preventative protection. While specialist units had long been in place for undercover work in relation to both terrorism and organised crime, the models worked, largely, because the targets were known or could be associated with a class of persons. And, of course, individual officers had a network of informants upon whom they relied. But, again, much of this was reactive or, insofar as information could prevent an action, led to internment rather than prosecution. Something had to be done and that something became, in 2000, the National Intelligence Model under which policing became intelligence-led.